bearing zones to determining rock rippability for estimating costs for pipeline installation. Other studies have identified alternating layers of sand and clay or shale on slopes and how they might affect the stability of proposed construction projects; similarly, detailed surveys over old piers and wharves can locate weak or old wood pilings. Other applications include:

Geosphere personnel have successfully completed various types of projects across the United States.

Using geophysics to map soil conditions and locate utilities at a construction site: a large crane required placement of four pads where integrity of the soils beneath could be assured.
More and more contractors and government agencies over the past few years have recognized the benefits and cost savings of using geophysical methods in conducting their geotechnical investigations. Newer and more capable instruments combined with faster computers have spawned the widespread use of the various methods for locating and describing subsurface features and structures that will impact construction designs. Such projects in the mining industry range from locating potentially hazardous faults and water-

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